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Phases of Change in Linear Development

Organizational changes are inevitable in modern-day organizations. The current social changes often occur in firms due to different factors, including the ever-evolving operational cultures, digital transformation, and demographic change. Alternatively, institutional change and the accompanying transitions occur due to shifts in the requirements and expectations of managing and planning daily tasks to reduce potential employee resistance. According to (Langer, 2018) it is not recommended for business organizations to focus only on employee responsibilities while initiating and implementing a learning program. However, before implementing any change, employees’ concerns must be factored in the organizational IT strategies to minimize any potential issue. Therefore, linear development and phases of change incorporate all those processes that move their business practices from one point to another primarily based on IT requirements.

The primary phases of change include organizational learning maturation. Here, learning maturation explains the modern-day organizational shift from employer-based learning mechanism to the need to embrace social concerns to formulate effective organizational transformation depending on digital business needs (Langer, 2018).  Thus, it implies that concepts including understanding the organizations learning maturation are key. The second phase integrates an organization’s information technology (IT) departments with pre-defined business-related technologies grounded in business practices and objectives. However, it requires that an organization has achieved learning maturation before implementing technological integration. Additionally, cultural assimilation is a consideration that businesses should leverage to determine their structural changes and related business requirements. The third phase incorporates organizations’ database units with their core business units within the technology department. The primary deliverable of the third phase is to help the organization address potential shortfalls while integrating IT components with different business facets while also focusing on training employees on the new changes and demonstrating the importance of embracing them.


There are 3 phases which were discussed in the Learning Organization

First phase refers to when the line managers have revolted against the organization due to the introduction of the old culture environment which is centralized infrastructure, stated operational boundaries, and separations that mandated anti-learning organizational behaviors (Langer, 2018). Due to which the learning has been more impacted moved towards the social learning objective which is concentrated on the goals and objectives of the organization

The second phase includes the IT department and other departments like media and engineering services integration for the development in the business which can be more beneficial to the organization if impelled, however it did not happen at the time of the discussion due to the inabilities to manage the ROD (Responsive Organizational Dynamism )(Langer, 2018), however on the positive side the phase II helped in more maturing the structural change to the IT learning process.

The Phase III includes the better management of the ROD by integrating the technologies in the Phase II however the changes have been made to remove the core technology and add the core database for the improvement of the ROD and the organizational learning process. However lack of participation in the ROD resulted in the lack of understanding in the relation and value of the it as the business strategy which intern affected the cost management of he business which resulted in the IT crisis (Langer, 2018).




K-means is an unaided bunching calculation intended to parcel unlabeled information into a specific number of groupings. Being a clustering algorithm, k-Means takes the lead focuses as info and gatherings them into k clusters. This cycle of the collection is the preparation period of the learning calculation. The outcome would be a model that takes an information test as info and returns the group that the new information point has a place to, according to the model’s preparation. The instinct behind the a is algorithm reality straightforward. To start, we pick a value for k (the number of bunches) and randomly select an underlying centroid (focus facilitates) for each group.

Types of clusters and importance of distinction:

  • Connectivity-based Clustering (Hierarchical clustering)
  • Centroids-based Clustering (Partitioning methods)
  • Distribution-based Clustering.
  • Density-based Clustering (Model-based methods)

The goal of clustering is to discover usefulness and significant bits of knowledge from information. It gathers information into gatherings and finds its utilization in biomedical, showcasing, and geospatial areas. The partitioning strategy for bunching isolates information into more modest gatherings, each group having one article (Tawade, 2020). The density-based clustering method decides the area dependent on the thickness of high datasets. The hierarchical leveled technique is separated into an agglomerative and troublesome methodology. In the agglomerative process, everything has a different gathering and each wire with various groups. In disruptive, everything has a similar bunch. In chart-based grouping, the data points are characterized as the inner circle, where every group’s hub is associated with one another.

The strengths and weaknesses of K-means:


Simple: It is not difficult to execute k-implies and recognize obscure groups of information from complex informational collections. The outcomes are introduced simply and.

Suitable in a large dataset: K-implies is appropriate for countless datasets, and it’s figured a lot quicker than the more modest dataset. It can likewise create higher clusters.

Time complexity: K-implies division is straight in the number of information protests, consequently expanding execution time. It doesn’t require some investment in characterizing comparable qualities in information like progressive algorithms.


  • When the numbers of data are not so many, the initial grouping will determine the cluster significantly.
  • We never know which attribute contributes more to the grouping process since we assume that each attribute has the same weight.
  • The number of clusters, K, must be determined beforehand.
  • Changing or rescaling the dataset either through normalization or standardization will completely change the results.

Cluster evaluation:

Before evaluating the clustering execution, ensuring that the informational collection we are working on has grouping propensity and does not contain consistently conveyed focuses is vital. If the data does not include clustering tendency, clusters identified by any state-of-the-art clustering algorithms may be irrelevant. Unsupervised clustering is estimated with no wellspring of outside data. Unaided is partitioned into cluster cohesion and bunch division. Cluster cohesion handles the smallness and snugness of information focuses and generally decides how close the articles are. Cluster division estimates the qualification of the bunches with each other. Unaided is regularly known as inward records.


What is K-means from a basic standpoint?

K-means is a clustering technique that accepts data sets as inputs and divides these into k clusters. This grouping step is the learning application’s training phase. The end result would be a model that accepts a dataset as argument and returns that clusters to which the new data set corresponds based on the learning which the algorithm underwent. As a result, the recommended material will be relatively relevant, as current users who engage in similar behaviours are probably interested in comparable information. Furthermore, when a new user enters the website’s environment, he or she is assigned to a certain cluster, and the content recommendation algorithm handles the rest (Tung-Shou Chen et al., 2005).


What are the various types of clusters and why is the distinction important?

In hard clustering, every set of data either totally or partially belongs to a cluster. Instead of assigning each data item to a splitting criterion, soft clustering assigns a chance or probability for that piece of data to still be in these clusters. These are iterative technique methods under which the idea of resemblance is generated from the proximity of a piece of data towards the clusters’ centroid. The K-Means clustering method is a common example of this type of technique. These models scan data space for regions with varying densities of data points. It separates distinct density zones and groups the datasets inside these areas into the same cluster.


What are the strengths and weaknesses of K-means?

Implementation is rather straightforward. Scales well with big data sets. Convergence is guaranteed. Centroids’ positions can be warmed up. Adapts easily to new instances. Generalizes to other forms and sizes of cluster, such as elliptic groupings. K-means has difficulty grouping data with different cluster sizes and densities. To categorize such datasets, k-means must be generalized. Outliers can pull centroids, or outliers can form their own cluster rather than being ignored. Before grouping, consider eliminating or cutting outliers. A distance-based clustering algorithm converges to a fixed value as the number of parameters rises.


What is a cluster evaluation?

There are two primary assessment techniques in unsupervised learning for verifying clustering findings. Measures of externally and internally validation.  The earlier measures the quality of something like the clusters based on the information. Meanwhile, independent validation methods use external information to assess overall integrity of such clusters. If, but at the other side, the error among assigning a certain class to another one of different clusters is identical, the allocation is given to the first clusters investigated throughout the search. As a result, while comparing multiple cluster techniques, you can depend on improperly grouped instances in this strategy (Peck, 2005).




Data Gathering

Healthcare heavily relies on the use of the big data to come up with the needed strategies as well as to support the overall process of decision making. This data gathering exercise is especially important in the current working environment, as there are many dynamics involved and many risks are likely to take place. It thus becomes important to gather the needed data in such a way that the decisions to be made are properly guided. Data collection takes various forms and approaches and these include the use of Radio Frequency Identification as well as the Near Field Communication (Dash et al., 2019).

Data gathering can be classified as one of the most essential concepts in big data, as big data analytics cannot take place in the absence of the data which acts as the raw material or the input for the entire process. For effective decision making, data should be collected from different sources. This would provide the real picture and would help to effectively guide in the process of decision making, especially in the current environment which is highly dynamic (Ayani et al., 2019). Besides, data gathering would support the healthcare organization’s quest to remain being competitive and relevant, regardless of the many risks that are likely to take place.

One critical challenge related to data gathering is the presence of confounding variables, which may have lots of discrepancies. If not properly addressed, chances are that the resulting data or analysis is likely to be full of errors and the decisions made may not be as effective as needed. Besides, noise is likely to be present in the data. This means that the data collecting individuals may not collect the needed data, as it may be full of many errors and noise (Ayani et al., 2019). As a result, data that may not be needed will end up getting collected and this may course more of distractions than assistance in decision making processes.


Healthcare Big Data follows the pattern of the three Vs: Volume, Velocity, and Variety. Volume and velocity are evident in several areas such as clinical documentation, patient monitoring, auditing, and capacity management. Capacity management includes such things as admissions, discharges, bed occupancy. Auditing is a high velocity process. For purposes of maintaining HIPAA compliance, every action such logging in and out, and opening a patient’s chart, is recorded. Auditing alone can be billions of rows along over the course of a year and consume a majority of an EHR reporting database. Creating auditing reports using a traditional RDBMS database can be time consuming and expensive, and anything other than retrospective analysis is not practical. Additionally, many hospitals are moving towards a stage 7 HIMSS electronic health record maturity level, requiring an ever-increasing need for efficient storage solutions. This level represents an advanced stage of adopting electronic health records and analytics (Electronic Medical Record Adoption Model (EMRAM) | HIMSS, 2021).

Big Data can help, and it gives several storage and integration benefits for the e-Healthcare industry. First, Big Data can be coupled with massive storage requirements and allow for the detection of unknown patterns quicker, thus allowing for more real-time decision support. Additionally, Big Data is open to a wider range for data formats. Auditing data can be queried directly in its text format rather than having to be imported to a SQL database, for example, before further analysis can be done (Bolboaca, n.d.).

But these storage and integration benefits are not without challenges. If the data is massive then it is appropriate monitor the data in a centralized manner so that data does not become redundant and to filter unnecessary data. If data is distributed across database there could be difficulty combing this data together. Choosing a scientific manner that connects these databases together could help. Also, if there is semantic variation between systems this could be an issue. Using logical observation identifiers names and codes (LOINC) is one example that can alleviate this problem (LOINC, n.d.).


K-means is an unsupervised clustering technique that is used to divide unlabeled data into a number of separate groups. In other words, k-means identifies observations that share key features and groups them into clusters (Kaushik, 2020). A good clustering solution finds clusters in such a way that the observations within each cluster are more similar than the clusters themselves.

Clustering is the task of separating a population or set of data points into a number of groups so that data points in the same group are more similar to data points in other groups than data points in other groups. In a nutshell, the goal is to separate groups with similar characteristics and assign them to clusters (Kaushik, 2020). Clustering may be divided into two categories, namely There are two types of clustering: hard clustering and soft clustering. In hard clustering, a single data point can only belong to one cluster. However, the result of soft clustering is a probability likelihood of a data point belonging to each of the pre-defined number of clusters.

Hard Clustering: In hard clustering, each data point either entirely or partially belongs to a cluster. In the above example, each client is assigned to one of the ten categories.

Soft Clustering: Instead of assigning each data point to a distinct cluster, soft clustering assigns a chance or likelihood for that data point to be in those clusters. For example, in the preceding situation, each customer is allocated a chance of being in one of the retail store’s ten clusters (Kaushik, 2020).

Strengths and Weaknesses of K-Means Clustering:

Advantages of K-Means:1) If the variables are large, K-Means is usually computationally quicker than hierarchical clustering if k is kept modest.

2)K-Means clusters are tighter than hierarchical clustering, especially when the clusters are globular.

Disadvantages of K-Means:

1) The K-Value is difficult to anticipate.

2) It did not function properly with global cluster.

3) Distinct starting partitions might result in dissimilar final clusters.

4) It does not function well with clusters of varying sizes and densities (in the original data).

Clustering is a machine learning technique that is unsupervised. It aids in the grouping of data points. Because the clustering method lacks ground truth labels, validating it is more difficult than validating a supervised machine learning system. Cluster validation is more frequently referred to as cluster assessment, which might be due to the fact that it includes numerous layers and facets (Kaushik, 2020). Unsupervised or supervised cluster evaluation is possible.

Unsupervised evaluation:

This is closely related to the nature of the clustering method, which is an unsupervised learning technique. It does not rely on any outside data to rate or evaluate the clusters. They are also known as internal indices since they make use of information that is easily available in the data collection (Kaushik, 2020).

Supervised evaluation:

Measures how well the structure generated by the clustering algorithms fits certain external data. For example, if we already knew the class labels for a particular collection of data, we might use a clustering algorithm to group the data and then compare the resulting clusters to the labels. Because this needs external data, it is also known as external indices because it makes use of information that is not included in the data set (Kaushik, 2020).



What is K-means from a basic standpoint?

From a basic standpoint, K-means is a clustering algorithm that is unsupervised and mainly designed to partition unlabelled data into a certain number of distinct groupings (Jeffaras, 2019).

What are the various types of clusters and why is the distinction important?

Various types of clusters are Connectivity-based Clustering, Centroids-based Clustering, Distribution-based Clustering, and Fuzzy Clustering. There are distinctions among these types because some of them are supervised and some of them are unsupervised. These distinctions will make it easy to pick the type of cluster based on the requirement.

What are the strengths and weaknesses of K-means?

Some of the strengths of K-means are that the times computational is faster and they produce tighter clusters. One of the weaknesses of K-means is that they are difficult to predict the K vales at times, and it does not work effectively with the global clusters (Jeffaras, 2019).

What is a cluster evaluation?

There is a colossal number of clustering algorithms and various opportunities for thinking about clustering in contrast to the best quality level. The decision of an appropriate clustering algorithm and a reasonable measure for the evaluation relies upon the clustering objects and the clustering task. The clustering objects inside this thesis are action words, and the clustering task is a semantic classification of the action words (UNI, n.d.).

A clustering evaluation requests an autonomous and solid measure for the appraisal and comparison of clustering experiments and results. In theory, the clustering specialist has gained an intuition for the clustering evaluation, however practically speaking, the mass of information on the one hand and the inconspicuous subtleties of information representation and clustering algorithms, on the other hand, make a natural judgment unimaginable (Jeffaras, 2019).

Two important factors by which clustering can be evaluated are:

Clustering tendency: Before assessing the clustering performance, ensuring that the informational collection we are chipping away at has a clustering inclination and doesn’t contain consistently disseminated focuses is vital.

Clustering quality: Once clustering is done, how well the clustering has been performed can be measured by a few measurements. Optimal clustering is portrayed by minimal intracluster distance and maximal inter-cluster distance.


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