The epipelagic is divided into two components: the oceanic waters and

Question

1 of 25

The epipelagic is divided into two components: the oceanic waters and the

photic zone.

neritic zone.

pelagic realm.

upper photic zone.

subtidal zone.

Question

2 of 25

Most of the primary production carried out in the open ocean is performed by

seaweeds.

kelps.

phytoplankton.

seagrasses.

zooxanthellae.

Question

3 of 25

Net phytoplankton consist mostly of

copepods.

diatoms and dinoflagellates.

nanoplankton.

cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).

nanoplankton and diatoms.

Question

4 of 25

Typically the most abundant group in the zooplankton are the.

larvaceans.

krill.

fish larvae.

nanoplankton.

copepods.

Question

5 of 25

Which of these is least likely to be seen in the epipelagic?

Suspension feeders

Deposit feeders

Primary production

First-level carnivores

Second-level carnivores

Question

6 of 25

Which of these groups builds a mucus “house?”

Copepods

Arrow worms

Larvaceans

Planktonic snails such as pteropods

Snail larvae

Question

7 of 25

Which of the following accounts for about 50% of the primary production in epipelagic waters?

Diatoms

Cyanobacteria

Dinoflagellates

Coccolithophorids

Silicoflagellates

Question

8 of 25

The following are an adaptation to the planktonic way of life except

spines.

small size.

decrease in drag.

substitution of heavy ions by light ones.

gas-filled bladders.

Question

9 of 25

The storage of lipids within the body is an adaptation in plankton since lipids

make cells heavier.

increase body density.

contain air pockets so they help in buoyancy.

contain a larger amount of energy.

are less dense than water.

Question

10 of 25

The neuston consists of animals that

swim against currents.

sink to the bottom portion of the water column.

are top carnivores in the pelagic realm.

spend their entire lives in the plankton.

live at the surface, but remain underwater.

Question

11 of 25

Counter shading is a form of

shading with bioluminescence.

warning coloration.

structural coloration.

protective coloration.

cryptic coloration.

Question

12 of 25

The rete mirabile found in some fishes is involved in.

increasing speed.

decreasing buoyancy.

digesting food.

increasing buoyancy.

conserving body heat.

Question

13 of 25

Zooplankton that migrate vertically

hibernate at night and feed during the day.

feed at the surface during the day, and migrate below the photic zone at night.

feed in the photic zone during the day, and migrate to the surface at night.

stay below the photic zone during the day, and feed at the surface at night.

migrate up and down but always stay below the photic zone.

Question

14 of 25

Most animals in the epipelagic are omnivores. This means that they eat

producers and consumers.

part of the neuston.

zooplankton.

detritus.

phytoplankton.

Question

15 of 25

What is the relationship between dissolved organic matter (DOM) and bacteria in the epipelagic?

Bacteria feed on the DOM, making it available to other animals in the food chain that feed on bacteria.

Bacteria supply most of the DOM.

Bacteria feed on DOM and thus it is unavailable to other animals.

Bacteria cannot utilize DOM and thus feed on detritus, depleting it through most of the epipelagic.

Bacteria cannot utilize DOM, making it available to animals.

Question

16 of 25

The most common limiting nutrient in the ocean is

silicon.

oxygen.

nitrogen.

carbonate.

phosphorus.

Question

17 of 25

The fall bloom in temperate waters is caused when

primary production decreases as nutrients increase.

primary production decreases due to light limitation.

primary production decreases as nutrients decrease.

primary production increases as nutrients increase.

primary production increases as the number of zooplankton increases.

Question

18 of 25

Equatorial upwelling occurs as a result of

temperature changes at the Equator.

the divergence of equatorial surface currents.

the convergence of equatorial surface currents.

winds causing the Ekman transport of surface water offshore.

El Niño conditions north and south of the Equator.

Question

19 of 25

The Southern Oscillation can be best described as

relative changes between two pressure systems.

variation in wind speed over the Pacific Ocean.

relationship between sea-surface and high-altitude pressures.

tidal differences between the Indian and Pacific Oceans.

wind-speed differences along the Equator.

Question

20 of 25

The long spines and projections seen in many epipelagic plankton are used for

feeding.

reproduction.

increasing drag.

increasing buoyancy.

gathering nutrients.

Question

21 of 25

Most epipelagic fish have a tail that is

short and wide.

short and narrow.

short and thin.

high and wide.

high and narrow.

Question

22 of 25

Which of the following adaptations is least likely to be seen in epipelagic fish?

Stiff fins

A smooth, scaleless body

Increased white muscle

Grove in body for fins

Eyes flush with body

Question

23 of 25

The largest source of dissolved organic material (DOM) in the epipelagic is

viruses.

bacteria.

phytoplankton.

zooplankton.

nekton.

Question

24 of 25

The lateral line system in fishes functions in ________________.

sensing vibrations in the water

detecting magnetic lines of force in water

sensing light in aphotic zones

sweeping surrounding water for plankton

bioluminescence

Question

25 of 25

The remote sensing system found in dolphins and some other cetaceans is ___________.

communal mutualistic behavior

extrasensory perception

echolocation

underwater acoustic sensitivity

heightened smell

 

 

 

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