designing storage and warehousing

Full Title of Your Thesis

Subtitle of the thesis


Submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor of Science


Faculty of Business and Economics

Department of Logistics, Tourism and Service Management




Name: Name Suriname

Student ID: 0000-xx-xxxx


Supervisor: Dr. Name Surname


April 2019







Table of Contents

Table of Contents. i

Abstract ii

List of Figures. iii

List of Tables. iv

List of Abbreviations. v

Academic Pledge. vi

Acknowledgements. vii

Chapter 1:          Introduction. 1

1.1      Background and Definitions. 1

1.2      Significance and Scope. 1

1.3      Research Question and Objective. 1

1.4      Thesis Overview.. 2

Chapter 2:          Literature Review.. 3

2.1      Historical Background. 4

2.2      Summary and Implications. 4

Chapter 3:          Problem Statement and Simulation Modeling. 5

3.1      Problem and/or Case Descriptetion. 5

3.2      Data Collection. 5

3.3      Model Construction. 6

3.4      Verification and Validation. 6

Chapter 4:          Computational Experiments. 7

4.1      Designing and conductig simulation experiments. 7

4.2      Output Analysis. 7

Chapter 5:          Conclusions. 9

References. 11

Appendices. 13

Appendix A Title. 13



The abstract should state briefly the purpose of the research, the principal results and major ‎conclusions.‎ It is better to give a short description regarding the topic and its importance. Then followed by ‎research gap and the research contribution.‎ If you have a case study you should mention about it.‎ Uses passive structures in order to report on findings.‎ It must be able to stand alone. For this reason, References should be avoided, but if essential, then ‎cite the author(s) and year(s).‎ Non-standard or uncommon abbreviations should be avoided, but if essential they must be defined ‎at their first mention in the abstract itself.‎

Keywords:  Put a paragraph of keywords here in alphabetical order (for cataloguing purposes).‎ Avoiding general and plural terms and multiple concepts (avoid, for example, “and”, “of”). ‎Be sparing with abbreviations: only abbreviations firmly established in the field may be eligible.‎


List of Figures

The List of Figures can be created automatically. Right click on the list and press “Update Field” to update the list.

To insert a caption below a figure, first click on the line under the figure, then go to the “References” tab and click on the “Insert Caption” button. In the “Option” section of the opened window, choose Figure option for the “Label” box. Also make sure that “Exclude Label from Caption” option is unchecked.


No table of figures entries found.

List of Tables

The List of Figures can be created automatically. Right click on the list and press “Update Field” to update the list.

To insert a caption above a table, first click on the line above the table, then go to the “References” tab and click on the “Insert Caption” button. In the “Option” section of the opened window, choose Table option for the “Label” box. Also make sure that “Exclude Label from Caption” option is unchecked.


No table of figures entries found.

List of Abbreviations

If appropriate, list any abbreviations used in the thesis.

Abbreviation Description

Academic Pledge

I, Name Surname, pledge that the work I have herewith submitted was fully ‎completed on my own, unless otherwise cited, following the criteria established for ‎academic integrity.‎




Signature:          _________________________


Date:                  _________________________


Thank those who have helped and supported you during the research and writing process. This includes both professional and personal acknowledgements.



Chapter 1:   Introduction

The introduction chapter needs to state the objectives of the program of research, ‎include definitions of the key concepts and variables and give a brief outline of the ‎background and research approach. The aim of the introduction is to contextualize ‎the proposed research.‎

1.1         Background and Definitions

Give the background of the problem to be explored in your study and what led you to ‎doing the thesis. For example, you might discuss educational trends related to the problem, ‎unresolved issues, social concerns. You might also include some personal background.‎

1.2         Significance and Scope

Discuss the importance of your research in terms of the topic (problem situation), the ‎methodology, and the gap in the literature. Outline the scope and delimitations of the study (i.e., ‎the major foci of your study) and give a statement of ‎the problem situation (basic difficulty – ‎area of concern, felt need).‎

1.3         Research Question and Objective

The research question should ask ‎about the main concerns of the ‎research. It should be simple enough ‎to be answered, but challenging ‎enough to be investigated. It should ‎state that what are the possible ‎expected outcomes (objectives) of the ‎study.‎

The next step after stating the research ‎question is to formulate the research ‎objectives. The objectives should be ‎specific and reflect the question that ‎you are asking. ‎

Different research questions and ‎objectives will require different ‎methodology. You need to think ahead ‎and plan what is the possible ‎methodology that is needed with each ‎research objective.‎

Note: Don’t set too many objectives ‎ ‎(it will diverse your attention).‎

1.4         Thesis Overview

Give some explanations about how the reminder of the thesis is organized.‎




Chapter 2:   Literature Review

The literature review chapter should demonstrate a thorough knowledge of the area and ‎provide arguments to support the study focus. The aim of the literature review chapter is to ‎delineate various theoretical positions and from these to develop a conceptual framework for ‎generation of hypotheses and setting up the research question.

The literature review chapter ‎needs to:‎

  • Critically evaluate the literature rather than merely describe previous literature (i.e., ‎what is good/bad about the body of literature?).‎
  • Show a synthesis and be integrated rather than being more like an annotated ‎‎
  • Identify key authors and the key works in the area, thus acquainting the reader with ‎existing studies relative to what has been found, who has done work, when and where ‎latest research studies were completed and what approaches to research methodology ‎were followed (literature review of methodology sometimes saved for chapter on ‎methodology).‎
  • Constitute an argument.‎
  • Clearly identify the gap in the literature that is being addressed by the research ‎‎

Suitable sources for the literature review include:‎

  • General integrative reviews cited that relate to the problem situation or research ‎problem such as those found in psychological and sociological reviews of research.‎
  • Specific books, monographs, bulletins, reports, and research articles – preference ‎shown in most instances for literature of the last 10 years.‎
  • Unpublished materials (e.g., dissertations, theses, papers presented at recent ‎professional meetings not yet in published form, etc.).‎


Start with an overview of this chapter by outlining the topics to be discussed. For example ‎‎[your thesis may have more than 3 topics and therefore more sections]:‎

This chapter begins with a historical background [optional] (section 2.1) and reviews literature on ‎the following topics: [topic 1] (section ‎2.2) [briefly describe the topic]; [topic 2] (section 2.3) ‎‎[briefly describe the topic]; and [topic 3] (section ‎2.4) [briefly describe the topic]. Section 2.5 ‎highlights the implications from the literature and develops the conceptual framework for the ‎study.‎

2.1         Historical Background

Present and discuss about the research background in this section. You can divide this section into different sub section to address different topics.

2.1.1   First Topic

Present and discuss your first topic here.

2.1.2   Second Topic

Present and discuss your second topic here.

2.1.3   Add More Topics If Required

Present and discuss your topics here.

2.2         Summary and Implications

Summarize the literature review and discuss the implications from the literature for your study – the theoretical framework for your study. Here you can make an explicit statement of the research questions and how they are derived from existing theory and literature.

Establish from the literature (or gap in the literature) the need for this study and the likelihood of obtaining meaningful, relevant, and significant results. Outline any conceptual or substantive assumptions, the rationale and the theoretical framework for the study. This section should also demonstrate the contribution of the research to the field.




Chapter 3:   Problem Statement and Simulation Modeling

This chapter should contain a detailed description of the problem or the case study. You can use figures, for further clarification.‎

After defining the problem/case, the simulation model should be constructed. In doing so, it is needed to address the details in the assumptions, the details about the model construction, data, and running length of the simulation model. Finally, the chapter comes up with a verification and validation process of the proposed model.

3.1         Problem and/or Case Descriptetion

The first step in building a simulation model is to analyze the problem itself. Note that system modeling is rarely undertaken for its own sake. Rather, modeling is prompted by some system-oriented problem whose solution is the mission of the underlying project. In order to facilitate a solution, the analyst first gathers structural information that bears on the problem, and represents it conveniently. This activity includes the identification of input parameters, performance measures of interest, relationships among parameters and variables, rules governing the operation of system components, and so on. The information is then represented as logic flow diagrams, hierarchy trees, narrative, or any other convenient means of representation. Once sufficient information on the underlying system is gathered, the problem can be analyzed and a solution mapped out.

3.2         Data Collection

Data collection is needed for estimating model input parameters. The analyst can formulate assumptions on the distributions of random variables in the model. When data are lacking, it may still be possible to designate parameter ranges, and simulate the model for all or some input parameters in those ranges. Data collection is also needed for model validation. That is, data collected on system output statistics are compared to their model counterparts (predictions).

3.3         Model Construction

Once the problem is fully studied and the requisite data collected, the analyst can proceed to construct a model and implement it as a computer program. The computer language employed may be a general-purpose language (e.g., C++, Visual Basic, FORTRAN) or a special-purpose simulation language or environment (e.g., Arena, Promodel, GPSS).

3.4         Verification and Validation

Proposing a simulation model, it is needed to approve that the model is a verified and validated model.

The purpose of model verification is to make sure that the model is correctly constructed. Differently stated, verification makes sure that the model conforms to its specification and does what it is supposed to do. Model verification is conducted largely by inspection, and consists of comparing model code to model specification. Any discrepancies found are reconciled by modifying either the code or the specification.

Every model should be initially viewed as a mere proposal, subject to validation. Model validation examines the fit of the model to empirical data (measurements of the real-life system to be modelled). A good model fit means here that a set of important performance measures, predicted by the model, match or agree reasonably with their observed counterparts in the real-life system. Of course, this kind of validation is only possible if the real-life system or emulation thereof exists, and if the requisite measurements can actually be acquired. Any significant discrepancies would suggest that the proposed model is inadequate for project purposes, and that modifications are called for. In practice, it is common to go through multiple cycles of model construction, verification, validation, and modification.



Chapter 4:   Computational Experiments

In this chapter the designed and conducted simulation experiments, and the analysis of the outputs are discussed. Usually, a comparison between the current situation and the designed and proposed simulation experiments would be an important discussion in this chapter.

4.1         Designing and conductig simulation experiments

Once the analyst judges a model to be valid, (s)he may proceed and approach the problem by designing a set of simulation experiments (runs), or by applying some optimization approaches to estimate model performance and aid in solving the project’s problem (often the problem is making system design decisions).

According to the first approach, the analyst selects a number of scenarios and runs the simulation to glean insights into its workings. To attain sufficient statistical reliability of scenario-related performance measures, each scenario is replicated (run multiple times, subject to different sequences of random numbers), and the results averaged to reduce statistical variability. And according to the second approach, ‎instead of evaluating a few of the myraid possibilities (scenarios), the analyst may develop an optimization approach to explore all the possibilities in terms of the problem characteristics. As an example of this kind of approach, Arena comes with a package called OptQuest that uses some heuristic algorithms to move around intelligently in the solution space and to converge quickly and reliably to an optimal point.

4.2         Output Analysis

The estimated performance measures are subjected to a thorough logical and statistical analysis. A typical problem is one of identifying the best design among a number (or all) of competing alternatives. A statistical analysis would run statistical inference tests to determine whether one of the alternative designs enjoys superior performance measures in comparison to others, including to the current situation, and so should be selected as the apparent best design.‎

Note: Present the findings/results in tables or charts when appropriate.



Chapter 5:   Conclusions

This chapter contains conclusions, limitations, and recommendations – so what is the theory? Where to from here? What are the practical implications? Discussion of where the study may be extended.

Again, the chapter should begin with a summary paragraph of the chapter structure. The opening section(s) of the chapter should be a brief summary of everything covered so far. Follow this with your conclusions. This is the “so what” of the findings – often the hypothesis/research question(s) restated as inferences with some degree of definitive commitment and generalisability, and the raising of new and pertinent questions for future research. You could include a final model of the theory.

It can be useful to use the purposes from Chapter 1 as an organising structure for this chapter. The chapter should also include a discussion of any limitations of the research, and should end with your final recommendations – practical suggestions for implementation of the findings/outcomes or for additional research.






The bibliography and all in-text citations must conform to APA style.‎

American Psychological Association (APA). (2010). Publication Manual of the ‎American Psychological Association (6th Ed.). Washington, DC: Author.‎

To insert a citation, go to, search for the citation using the ‎title of the document you want to cite. After finding the document, click on the ‎ ‎  ‎and in the opened box copy the citation from the APA section.‎





Put your complementary material in the appendix. It could be raw data, model, ‎questionnaires or surveys, interview transcripts, figures, tables, maps, charts, photo, ‎etc.‎ Start each appendix on a new page. Place appendices in the same order as they are ‎referred to in the body of the thesis. That is, the first appendix referred to should be ‎Appendix A, the second appendix referred to should be Appendix B, and so on.‎

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