The smaller unit molecules (monomers) which combine to form proteins

1. A testable explanation of a broad range of related phenomena that is relied upon by scientists with a high degree of confidence is referred to as ________. (Points : 5)
        an act
        a law
        a theory
        a dogma

2. The smaller unit molecules (monomers) which combine to form proteins and polypeptides are called ____________. (Points : 5)
        fatty acids
        amino acids

3. Enzymes, some hormones, and structural molecules like keratin and collagen are examples of ______________. (Points : 5)
        nucleic acids

4. An atom that has gained or lost electrons is referred to as _______________. (Points : 5)
        an ion
        a molecule
        an isotope
        an element

5. Cell membranes consist of _____________. (Points : 5)
        a complex carbohydrate webbing
        a flexible sheet of protein
        a network of microfilaments and microtubules
        a double layer of phospholipids

6. Which of the following transport mechanisms requires ATP to move materials across a plasma membrane? (Points : 5)
        simple diffusion
        facilitated diffusion
        active transport

7. A cell is placed in a solution.  If the cell is observed to shrink, the solution must be _________________ relative to the interior of the cell. (Points : 5)

8. Consider the following two statements:
(1)  ” Energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but it can be changed in form.”
(2)  “If energy changes form, the change is never 100% efficient.”
(Points : 5)
        These statements are expressions of the 1st and 2nd energy laws.
        These statements don’t apply to any cells.
        These statements are both false.
        These statements apply only to eukaryotic (higher) cells.

9. The part of an enzyme that “fits” its substrate is called its __________ site. (Points : 5)

10. In higher cells, cellular (aerobic) respiration with production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is carried out in the _______________. (Points : 5)
        plasma membrane
        endoplasmic reticulum

11. Meiosis differs from mitosis because _______________. (Points : 5)
        meiosis results in diploid daughter cells
        meiosis involves two cell divisions
        DNA replicates before the start of meiosis
        meiosis occurs all over the human body

12. Leaves are green because ____________. (Points : 5)
        carotenoids absorb green light
        carotenoids reflect green light
        chlorophylls a and b absorb green light
        chlorophylls a and b reflect green light

13. Many human traits such as eye color and height are controlled by _______________. (Points : 5)
        sex-linked inheritance
        Mendel’s laws
        polygenic inheritance
        incomplete dominance

14. ______________ is a nucleic acid base found in ribonucleic acid (RNA) but not in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (Points : 5)
        Thymine (T)
        Guanine (G)
        Cytosine (C)
        Uracil (U)

15. Which of the following is not a possible outcome of recombinant deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) technology? (Points : 5)
        mass production of human hormones by bacteria
        estimating the age of a rock sample
        increasing the production of hardier crops
        correcting a human disease

16. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a method of ________________. (Points : 5)
        mass-producing proteins
        speeding up the production of mRNA proteins
        making multiple identical copies of small amounts of DNA
        decoding the nucleotide sequence of a gene

17. Which of the following is most likely to cause a cell to become cancerous? (Points : 5)
        mutation of a tumor supressor gene
        premature apoptosis
        contact inhibition

18. The normal complement of sex chromosomes for a human male is ___________. (Points : 5)

19. An allele is ____________. (Points : 5)
        an alternate form of a gene
        a gene found on different chromosomes (e.g., on chromosome numbers 1 and 5)
        a gene located at two different positions on the same chromosome
        a sex cell

20. A visual display of metaphase chromosomes arranged by size, shape, and banding pattern is ______. (Points : 5)
        a genetic disorder
        a centrosome
        a karyotype

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